In the last two posts, we established five facts.  First,  the universe is expanding (i.e., the space between galaxies) and the expansion is accelerating. Second, there is no expansion of space within a galaxy. Third, science believes that the accelerating expansion of the universe is caused by a mysterious new force, dark energy. Fourth, it appears galaxies are glued together via another mysterious entity, dark matter. Lastly, dark matter only exists within a galaxy and not between galaxies. These facts have been confirmed and are widely accepted in the scientific community.

In the last post (part 2), I suggested that  a galaxy on a cosmic level acts essentially like a particle. This view of a galaxy as a particle is based on the observation that dark matter, which makes up over 90% of the matter of a galaxy, acts like a “glue” holding all the celestial bodies (stars, planets, etc.) in place. As odd as this may sound, most cosmologists accept this view of dark matter.  

Lastly, we asked the key question. What is really causing the space between these “particles” (i.e., galaxies) to expand. In other words, we are back to the question: What is dark energy? This post will endeavor to address that question. However, while the first two posts provided factual information, the nature of dark energy is speculative. This post will delineate my view, which has been published in my first book, Unraveling the Universe’s Mysteries, and in an article for the Huffington Post ( However, let me emphasize that this is my view (i.e., theory). While it has been published in both my books and in the Huffington Post, it has not be adequately peer reviewed. Therefore, you should treat this as a conjecture (i.e., an opinion). To delineate my view, I will quote (in part) from the article I published in the Huffington Post: 

In my book, I put forward a new theory that explains both the fundamental cause of time dilation and accelerating universe. I name the theory “The Existence Equation Conjecture.”

What is the Existence Equation Conjecture? It is a mathematical equation I derived using Einstein’s special theory of relativity and Minkowski space-time coordinates. It delineates the energy required for a mass to move in the fourth dimension of Minkowski space. Unfortunately, this sounds more like science fiction than science fact. In addition, all the scientific jargon tends to confuse the explanation. Rather than going through the derivation and experimental verification, which are in the appendices of my book, let me just get to the punch line. Here is the Existence Equation Conjecture:

KEX4 = -.3mc^2

Where KEX4 is the kinetic energy associated with an object’s movement in the fourth dimension of Minkowski space, m is the rest mass of an object, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum.

What does all this mean? The interpretation is speculative. With this caveat, I interpret the equation to imply that a mass requires energy to move in the fourth dimension of Minkowski space. Although, Einstein never called the fourth dimension time, it includes a time component, and I interpret the mass’ movement in the fourth dimension to equate to its existence. The equation is dimensionally correct (expressible in units of energy), but highly unusual from two standpoints. First, the kinetic energy is negative, which suggests a mass requires energy to move in the fourth dimension. Second, the amount of negative kinetic energy suggested by the equation is enormous. Although, the equation’s roots extend to special relativity, and it correlates well with experimental time dilation data, I termed it a conjecture. It requires further peer review and additional experimental verification.

If the Existence Equation Conjecture actually models the energy a mass needs to exist, how does this explain the accelerating universe? If correct, the amount of energy required for existence is enormous, and it has to come from somewhere. I looked at a number of potential candidates. In the end, I concluded the most likely candidate is the vacuum of space. We know from our experiments with vacuums in the laboratory that vacuums contain energy. An example of this is virtual particle production, which gives rise to the Casimir effect, where two closely spaced electrically neutral plates are pushed together in a vacuum. Although counter intuitive, a laundry list of effects demonstrates vacuums contain energy.

If we think of galaxies as masses, we can postulate to exist they are removing energy from the vacuums that surround them. We know from Einstein’s famous mass energy equivalence (E = mc^2), that removing energy is equivalent to removing mass. This suggests that as the mass/energy density decreases, the gravitational attraction within the vacuum decreases, which in turn causes the vacuum to expand.

While the Existence Equation Conjecture does mathematically express the energy required for a mass to move in time, how do we know it is correct? Here are some facts for consideration:

1. The derivation of the equation follows from Einstein’s special theory of relativity and its expression in Minkowski’s vector space. The derivation was first delineated in Appendix 1 of my book, Unraveling the Universe’s Mysteries (2012), and further refined in Appendix 2 of my book, How to Time Travel (2013).

2. Verification of the equation to accurately predict experimental time dilation results was provided in Appendix 2 of my book, Unraveling the Universe’s Mysteries (2012), and further discussed in Appendix 3 of my book, How to Time Travel (2013).

If you accept that the Existence Equation Conjecture is correct, it implies that existence, movement in time, continually requires energy. In a sense, this should not surprise us. Elementary physics teaches that a mass moving in three-dimensional space has kinetic energy. The energy to start the mass moving results in its kinetic energy. Intuitively, we should expect a mass moving in the fourth dimension of Minkowski space to also require energy. We already know from numerous time dilation experiments that adding significant kinetic energy to a mass. such as a muon (i.e., an unstable subatomic particle of the same class as an electron, but with a mass around 200 times greater), increases its decay time by more than an factor of ten (i.e., an order of magnitude). Many books on special and general relativity provide time dilation formulas, but do not explain the fundamental scientific mechanism. I judge, based on this work, that the fundamental mechanism is that existence requires energy and supplying energy to a mass will extend it life (i.e., dilate time).

The above discussion provides a theory why the space between galaxies expands. In summary, the galaxies drain energy from the vacuums of space to sustain their (i.e., the galaxies) existence. As energy is removed from the vacuums of space, so is mass (based on Einstein’s mass energy equivalence formula E = mc^2). With less energy/mass in the vacuums, the gravitational force defining the vacuum is diminished, which in turn causes the vacuum to expand.

As I said at the beginning of this post, the above is the result of my original research, published in my books and the Huffington Post. I welcome peer reviewed. However, until the Existence Equation Conjecture gains widespread scientific acceptance, I will continue to label it a conjecture (i.e., an opinion). In the next post, concluding this series, I will explain (my view) why galaxies more distant from us appear to be moving away from us the fastest.