How to Time Travel (Published September 2013, Amazon) delineates the latest scientific theories and experiments regarding the science of time travel, proposed time machines, time travel paradoxes and time travel evidence. It also provide several new contributions to this perennially popular topic. These include the Existence Equation Conjecture, the Grandchild Paradox, the Preserve the World Line Rule, and the Time Uncertainty Interval.

Numerous books, experiments, and highly regarded scientific papers, like Einstein’s special and general theories of relativity, have established time travel as not only theoretically possible, but as a science fact. For example, high-energy particle accelerators routinely prove that time travel to the future is a science fact for subatomic particles accelerated close to the speed of light. Although, current scientific capability  does not enable significant human time travel to the future, or even time travel to the past for  subatomic particles, many in the scientific community estimate that human time travel to the future and past will be accomplished by the end of the 21st century.

In this post, I discuss the new additions that How to Time Travel makes to the field of time travel science.

Existence Equation Conjecture

In How to Time Travel I delineate my own theoretical research, the existence equation conjecture, which explains the role energy plays in time travel. Using the equation, I am able to explain time dilation experiments (i.e., time travel to the future) within 2% accuracy. As I asserted in the book, I derived the existence equation conjecture from Einstein’s special theory of relativity. It lays bare the fundamental basis for time travel. I consider it an important addition to the science of time travel, since it formulates time travel directly in terms of energy, and not secondary phenomena such as particle acceleration. Please keep in mind that in science, a conjecture is a scientific opinion.

A host of new experiments and even a classical experiment (i.e., the double slit experiment) prove that events in the future can influence the past. This may come across as counter intuitive, but the data from the experiments make it an inescapable conclusion. I discuss the experiments in chapter 1, “Twisting the arrow of time,” and in chapter 6, “Time travel paradoxes.” Here is a statement of the “grandchild paradox”: The grandchild paradox refers to any situation involving reverse causality (i.e., effect occurs before cause). Any situation, real or imagined, that reverses the arrow of time and allows the future to influence the past, may be considered a grandchild paradox. The arrow of time refers to the direction of time, typically proceeding from the present to the future. Twisting the arrow of time refers to reversing the flow of time. Until recently, most of the scientific community would have agreed that the arrow of time pointed in only one direction, from the present to the future. These new findings argue the arrow of time can also point from the future to the past.

Preserve the World Line Rule

According to the general theory of relativity, all reality travels in four-dimensional space, termed a world line. Numerous solutions to Einstein’s equations of general relativity delineate “close timelike curves” (the world line of an entity returns its starting point). If the world line of any entity returns to its starting point, the entity is said to have returned to its past, suggesting backward time travel is theoretically possible. However, to date, we have not been able to experimentally verify that this aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity is true. Some in the scientific community believe that in time, we will find a way to send subatomic particles, information and eventually humans back in time. When and if this becomes a reality, nations possessing this capability can literally rewrite history. Faced with this possibility, I think there is one commonsense rule regarding time travel that would assure greater safety for all involved. I term the rule “preserve the world line.” Why this one simple rule? Altering the world line (i.e., the path that all reality takes in four-dimensional spacetime) may lead to chaos. History would become meaningless. We have no idea what changes might result if the world line is disrupted, and the consequences could be serious, even disastrous.

Time Uncertainty Interval

Planck time is the smallest interval of time that science is able to define. The theoretical formulation of Planck time comes from dimensional analysis, which studies units of measurement, physical constants, and the relationship between units of measurement and physical constants. In simpler terms, one Planck interval is approximately equal to 10-44 seconds (i.e., 1 divided by 1 with 44 zeros after it). It is widely believed in the scientific community that we would not be able to measure a change smaller than a Planck interval. From this standpoint, we can assert that time is only reducible to an interval, not a dimensionless sliver, and that interval is the Planck interval. Since the smallest unit of time is only definable as the Planck interval, this suggests there is a fundamental limit to our ability to measure an event in absolute terms. This fundamental limit to measure an event in absolute terms is independent of the measurement technology. The error in measuring the start or end of any event will always be at least one Planck interval. This means the amount of uncertainty regarding the start or completion of an event is only knowable to one Planck interval. I term this uncertainty of measurement the “Time Uncertainty Interval.”

The above concepts are both new and original, based on my own theoretical research. I suggest you greet them with open mindedness and skepticism. They are now part of the scientific literature landscape, included in my new book How to Time Travel, and await rigorous peer review.

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